Please refer to OneFlow Distributed Overview for a brief introduction to all features related to distributed training.

OneFlow provides two ways to accomplish Distributed Training:

  • The first way is that users are recommended to use OneFlow’s global Tensor for distributed training. Global Tensor regards the computing cluster as a supercomputing device, allowing users to write distributed training code just like in a single-machine environment.

  • OneFlow also provides a DDP(DistributedDataParallel) module aligned with PyTorch. DDP has been well-known and widely used in data parallelism by the majority of PyTorch users. Also see PyTorch DDP introduction.


When you start distributed training in OneFlow, the following functions can be used.


Returns the number of processes in the current process group.


Returns the rank of current process group.


Returns the local rank of current machine.


Returns the number of machines in the current process group.


Init RDMA in the current envirment.


Returns whether RDMA is initialized in the current envirment or not.

Global Tensor

Construct Global Tensor

A Global Tensor can be created with a placement and a sbp. The placement describes the physical devices of the global tensor will be allocated, and the sbp describes its distribution among these devices.

>>>import oneflow as flow
>>> # Place a global tensor on cuda device of rank(process) 0 and 1
>>> placement = flow.placement(type="cuda", ranks=[0, 1])
>>> # Each rank's local data is a part data as a result of spliting global data on dim 0
>>> sbp = flow.sbp.split(dim=0)
>>> # Create a global tensor by randn
>>> x = flow.randn(4, 5, placement=placement, sbp=sbp)
>>> x.shape
oneflow.Size([4, 5])

Convert Local Tensor to Global Tensor

With Tensor.to_global interface, Local Tensor can create a Global Tensor and use that Local Tensor as its local component at the current node.

Two local tensors with the shape of (2,5) are created separately on two devices. While after the to_global method, the global tensor with a shape of (4,5) is obtained.

Code running on Node 0

import oneflow as flow

x = flow.randn(2,5)
placement = flow.placement("cuda", [0,1])
sbp = flow.sbp.split(0)
x_global = x.to_global(placement=placement, sbp=sbp)

Code running on Node 1

import oneflow as flow

x = flow.randn(2,5)
placement = flow.placement("cuda", [0,1])
sbp = flow.sbp.split(0)
x_global = x.to_global(placement=placement, sbp=sbp)

Redistribute Global Tensor

Redistributing a Global Tensor means moving its data to another device group (or placement), or changing its data distribution (or SBP) across the group, or both at the same time. The redistributed tensor is still a Global Tensor.

>>> import oneflow as flow
>>> x = flow.tensor([1.0, 2.0], placement=flow.placement("cuda", ranks=[0, 1]), sbp=flow.sbp.split(0))
>>> y = x.to_global(placement=flow.placement("cuda", ranks=[2, 3]), sbp=flow.sbp.broadcast)

According to the operator’s semantics, OneFlow defines a sequence of valid input and output SBP combinations for each built-in operator. So OneFlow could automatically redistribute the Global Tensor to satisfy the operator’s SBP requirements for its input Tensor. For example, the following code:

>>> import oneflow as flow
>>> x = flow.randn(4, 4,
        placement=flow.placement("cuda", ranks=[0, 1]),
>>> y = flow.randn(4, 4,
        placement=flow.placement("cuda", ranks=[0, 1]),
>>> z = x + y

When x + y is executed, since x is split along dimension 0 and y is split along dimension 1, their local components at each node can not be added directly, then OneFlow will automatically redistribute one of x and y to make them have the same SBP, and complete the add operation successfully.


  • Global Tensor can not be used in combination with DDP currently.

  • Global Tensor requires all devices to execute at the same pace, otherwise, it may cause multi-process deadlock.

Get Local Tensor from Global Tensor

With Tensor.to_local interface, the Global Tensor can return its local component at the current node.

y = x.to_local()
tensor([[ 2.9186e-01, -3.9442e-01,  4.7072e-04, -3.2216e-01,  1.7788e-01],
            [-4.5284e-01,  1.2361e-01, -3.5962e-01,  2.6651e-01,  1.2951e+00]],
        device='cuda:0', dtype=oneflow.float32)


For more information about DistributedDataParallel, see nn.parallel.DistributedDataParallel

The following script shows the process of using oneflow.nn.parallel.DistributedDataParallel for training data parallel:

import oneflow as flow
from oneflow.nn.parallel import DistributedDataParallel as ddp

train_x = [
    flow.tensor([[1, 2], [2, 3]], dtype=flow.float32),
    flow.tensor([[4, 6], [3, 1]], dtype=flow.float32),
train_y = [
    flow.tensor([[8], [13]], dtype=flow.float32),
    flow.tensor([[26], [9]], dtype=flow.float32),

class Model(flow.nn.Module):
    def __init__(self):
        super().__init__() = 0.01
        self.iter_count = 500
        self.w = flow.nn.Parameter(flow.tensor([[0], [0]], dtype=flow.float32))

    def forward(self, x):
        x = flow.matmul(x, self.w)
        return x

m = Model().to("cuda")
m = ddp(m)
loss = flow.nn.MSELoss(reduction="sum")
optimizer = flow.optim.SGD(m.parameters(),

for i in range(0, m.iter_count):
    rank = flow.env.get_rank()
    x = train_x[rank].to("cuda")
    y = train_y[rank].to("cuda")

    y_pred = m(x)
    l = loss(y_pred, y)
    if (i + 1) % 50 == 0:
        print(f"{i+1}/{m.iter_count} loss:{l}")



There are only two differences between the data parallelism training code and the stand-alone single-card script:

  • Use DistributedDataParallel to wrap the module object (m = ddp(m))

  • Use get_rank to get the current device number and distribute the data to the device.

Then use launcher to run the script, leave everything else to OneFlow, which makes distributed training as simple as stand-alone single-card training:

python3 -m oneflow.distributed.launch --nproc_per_node 2 ./

Communication collectives


Reduces the tensor data across all machines in such a way that all get the final result.


Gathers tensors from the whole group in a list.


Each process scatters list of input tensors to all processes in a group and return gathered list of tensors in output list.


Broadcasts the tensor to the whole group.


Synchronizes all processes.


Gathers a list of tensors in a single process.


Reduces the tensor data across all machines.


Reduces, then scatters a list of tensors to all processes in a group.


Receives a tensor synchronously.


Scatters a list of tensors to all processes in a group.


Sends a tensor synchronously.

Launching distributed training

run commands below to see more about usage.

python3 -m oneflow.distributed.launch -h
usage: [-h] [--nnodes NNODES] [--node_rank NODE_RANK]
             [--nproc_per_node NPROC_PER_NODE] [--master_addr MASTER_ADDR]
             [--master_port MASTER_PORT] [-m] [--no_python]
             [--redirect_stdout_and_stderr] [--logdir LOGDIR]
             training_script ...

OneFlow distributed training launch helper utility that will spawn up multiple
distributed processes

positional arguments:
training_script       The full path to the single GPU training program/script to be
                        launched in parallel, followed by all the arguments for the
                        training script

optional arguments:
-h, --help            show this help message and exit
--nnodes NNODES       The number of nodes to use for distributed training
--node_rank NODE_RANK
                        The rank of the node for multi-node distributed training
--nproc_per_node NPROC_PER_NODE
                        The number of processes to launch on each node, for GPU
                        training, this is recommended to be set to the number of GPUs in
                        your system so that each process can be bound to a single GPU.
--master_addr MASTER_ADDR
                        Master node (rank 0)'s address, should be either the IP address
                        or the hostname of node 0, for single node multi-proc training,
                        the --master_addr can simply be
--master_port MASTER_PORT
                        Master node (rank 0)'s free port that needs to be used for
                        communication during distributed training
-m, --module          Changes each process to interpret the launch script as a python
                        module, executing with the same behavior as'python -m'.
--no_python           Do not prepend the training script with "python" - just exec it
                        directly. Useful when the script is not a Python script.
                        write the stdout and stderr to files 'stdout' and 'stderr'. Only
                        available when logdir is set
--logdir LOGDIR       Relative path to write subprocess logs to. Passing in a relative
                        path will create a directory if needed. Note that successive
                        runs with the same path to write logs to will overwrite existing
                        logs, so be sure to save logs as needed.